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In 1989, Gary helped pioneer the Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) movement, which drastically changed the way that researchers conducted decision making research. NDM emerged as a means of studying how people make decisions and perform cognitively complex tasks in real-world situations as opposed to controlled laboratory settings.


In 1978, Gary started his own Research and Development company, Klein Associates, to perform what is now described as NDM research. Since then, 12 companies have spun off of Klein Associates and are still in existence.


The NDM community hosts annual meetings, alternating between sites in the U.S. and Europe.


For additional reading on the NDM movement, click here.


To download a catalogue of the tools the NDM movement has produced, click here.

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